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挖掘机维修保养的知识你都明白了吗?

日期:2020-05-18   来源:
发动机转速下降
Engine speed decrease
首先要测试发动机本身输出功率,如果发动机输出功率大大低于额定功率,如是在施工现场判断要从更简单的方法入手,首先看燃油滤芯是否堵塞,燃油路中是否有漏气的地方,燃油泵中的柱塞,喷油头,出油阀是否严重磨损,空气滤芯进气是否通畅,带涡轮增压器的发动机,涡轮增压器是否损坏,发动机是否快速高温,机油粘度下降,造成缸壁封闭不严压缩比下降,是否缸套组件磨损造成缸内严重串气,发动机气门封闭不严等,这些都是严重影响发动机功率的因素。如果排除了发动机本身输出动力不足外,就要考虑液压泵的流量和发动机的输出功率的匹配问题了。
First of all, test the output power of the engine itself. If the output power of the engine is much lower than the rated power, the simplest way to judge at the construction site is to start with, first of all, check whether the fuel filter element is blocked, whether there is any air leakage in the fuel circuit, whether the plunger, fuel injection head and oil outlet valve in the fuel pump are seriously worn, whether the air inlet of the air filter element is smooth, with turbocharging Whether the engine and turbocharger of the engine are damaged, whether the engine is fast and high temperature, whether the oil viscosity is reduced, whether the cylinder wall is not sealed tightly, whether the compression ratio is reduced, whether the cylinder liner components are worn, whether the cylinder is seriously cross-linked, whether the engine valve is not sealed tightly, etc., are all factors that seriously affect the engine power. If the engine output power is excluded, the matching between the flow of the hydraulic pump and the output power of the engine should be considered.
液压挖掘机在施工作业中,根据作业的负载要求,速度与负载(流量与压力)是成反比的,就是泵的输出压力和流量的乘积是一个常数,泵的输出功率恒定或近似恒定;如果泵控制系统出现了故障,就不能很好地实现发动机—泵—阀—负荷在不同工况区域优化匹配状态,从而使挖掘机不能正常作业,所以我们必须掌握各种厂家生产的挖机控制系统。如大宇的EPOS系统,加藤的APC系统,小松CLSS系统等;在处理故障时,同样是有简到繁逐一分析确认。结合现代挖机是机—电—液一体化产品,技术含量高,所以在处理故障时,一般先从电器系统入手,再检查液压系统,检查机械传动系统。检查液压系统时,从辅助油路—控制油路—主油路—控制元件逐步检查。
In the construction of hydraulic excavator, according to the load requirements of the operation, the speed is inversely proportional to the load (flow and pressure), that is, the product of the output pressure and flow of the pump is a constant, and the output power of the pump is constant or approximately constant; If the pump control system breaks down, the engine pump valve load can not be optimized in different working conditions, so that the excavator can not work normally, so we must master the excavator control system produced by various manufacturers. Such as Daewoo's EPOS system, Kato's APC system, Komatsu's clss system, etc.; when dealing with faults, it is also simple to complex to analyze and confirm one by one. Combined with the modern excavator is a machine electric hydraulic integrated product with high technical content, so when dealing with the fault, we usually start from the electrical system, then check the hydraulic system, and finally check the mechanical transmission system. When checking the hydraulic system, check step by step from auxiliary oil circuit control oil circuit main oil circuit control element.
工作速度变慢
Slow down
如果是使用多年的挖掘机,速度逐渐变慢,这属于正常磨损所致。主要因素整机各部磨损造成发动机功率下降与液压系统内泄,这样就一系列故障都表现出来了,由于泄漏造成内部能量消耗,产生大量热能,使整个系统迅速升温,液压油及发动机机油粘度下降,使整个系统产生高温,表现为凉车稍快越热越慢,这就需要全机大修,对磨损超限的零部件进行修复更换。如果是新挖机突然变慢,这就要先简后繁,从以下几方面检查:先查电路保险丝是否断路或短路;先导压力是否正常;伺服控制阀-伺服活塞是否卡死;分配器合流故障等;排除了其它可能性,拆解液压泵。
金沙手机娱乐网址长臂挖掘机租赁
If the excavator has been used for many years, the speed gradually slows down, which is caused by normal wear. The main factor is that the wear of each part of the whole machine results in the decrease of engine power and the internal leakage of hydraulic system, so a series of faults are shown. Due to the leakage, the internal energy consumption is caused, a lot of heat energy is generated, the whole system is heated rapidly, the viscosity of hydraulic oil and engine oil is reduced, and the whole system generates high temperature, which shows that the cooler the car is, the hotter it is, the slower it is, which requires the overhaul of the whole machine Repair and replace the parts with excessive wear. If the new excavator suddenly slows down, it is necessary to check from the following aspects: first, check whether the circuit fuse is open or short circuited; whether the pilot pressure is normal; whether the servo control valve servo piston is stuck; distributor confluence fault; eliminate other possibilities, and finally disassemble the hydraulic pump.
整机无力分几个方面,一是外部负荷大时发动机急剧降速,这就表现在以下两个方面:
The whole machine is unable to be divided into several aspects. First, when the external load is large, the engine slows down sharply, which is shown in the following two aspects:
1、要按前述所说的先检查发动机动力。
1. Check the engine power as mentioned above.
2、是检查液压排量是否遵循恒功率输出。即在不影响速度的前提下,调整斜盘角度减小排量。二是部在负荷大时发动机不降速,并且系统速度正常;这就要调试系统压力了,由于各厂家使用的液压元件与液压系统不同所规定的各液压缸压力也不同,只要按制造厂商规定标准调试就可以了。另外如果在调整溢流阀压力调不上来时,并检查溢流阀处于完好状态时,这就要检查液压泵的调节系统,乃至液压泵的缸体,配流盘,柱塞等零部件了。
2. Is to check whether the hydraulic displacement follows the constant power output. That is, on the premise of not affecting the speed, adjust the swashplate angle to reduce the displacement. Second, the engine does not slow down when the load is large, and the system speed is normal; therefore, it is necessary to debug the system pressure. Because the hydraulic components used by various manufacturers are different from the hydraulic system, the pressure of each hydraulic cylinder is also different, as long as the debugging is in accordance with the manufacturer's standards. In addition, if the pressure of the relief valve cannot be adjusted and the relief valve is in good condition, it is necessary to check the regulating system of the hydraulic pump, as well as the cylinder body, port plate, plunger and other parts of the hydraulic pump.
一般挖掘机常见故障都表现在以上这些方面。随着挖掘机使用增多,在施工作业中经常出现的一些普遍的故障,一般使用挖机一两年以上的用户都能够了解一些;如:挖机行走跑偏,用户就可以马上意识到:行走分配油封(又称回转接头油封)损坏;两个液压泵流量大小不一;一边行走马达有问题。液压缸快速下泄:马上可意识到安全溢流阀封闭不严,或缸油封严重损坏等等。不过这些普遍的共性的表面故障,对一些的修理厂来说是远远不能适应维修市场的。
The common faults of excavator are shown in the above aspects. With the increasing use of excavators, some common faults often occur in the construction work. Generally, users who have used excavators for more than one or two years can understand some of them. For example, when the excavators run off, users can immediately realize that: the travel distribution oil seal (also known as the center return adapter oil seal) is damaged; the flow of two hydraulic pumps is different; there is a problem with one side of the travel motor. Quick release of hydraulic cylinder: immediately realize that the safety relief valve is not tightly closed, or the cylinder oil seal is seriously damaged, etc. However, these common surface faults are far from suitable for the maintenance market for some professional repair shops.
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